Classification of Bioremediation

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Classification of bioremediation

Bioremediation is a waste management technique. The process uses naturally occurring organisms to break down hazardous substances into less toxic or non-toxic substances. The method uses organisms like bacteria, fungi or plants to carry out the process.

Bioremediation is commonly classified as follows-

Biostimulation

Bioaugmentation

Intrinsic bioremediation

Basically, there are two types of bioremediation. These are stated as follows-

In-situ bioremediation: It describes the process of cleaning up of contamination at the site where it occurs.

Ex-situ bioremediation: It depicts the method of cleaning up of contamination out of site.

There are two main types of In-situ bioremediation:

Intrinsic bioremediation: It uses microorganisms already present in the environment to biodegrade harmful contaminant.

Accelerated bioremediation: It requires either substrate or nutrients to be added to the environment to help break down the toxic spill by making the microorganisms grow more rapidly.

 

In-situ bioremediation techniques are studied under following headings.

Bioremediation on land

Landfarming

Bioventing

Biospurging

Bioaugmentation

Benefits of In-situ bioremediation techniques:

Most cost efficient

Noninvasive

Relatively Passive

Natural Attenuation process

Treats soil and water

Limitations of In-situ bioremediation techniques:

Environmental Constraints

Extended Treatment Times

Monitoring difficulties

Factors to consider for In-situ bioremediation techniques:

Biodegradative abilities of indigenous microorganisms

Presence of metals and other inorganics

Environmental Parameters

Biodegradability of pollutants

Chemical Solubility

Geological Factors

Distribution of pollutants

 

 

Ex-situ bioremediation techniques are stated under following headings.

Composting

Biopile process

Bioreactors

If contaminated material is excavated it can be treated on or off-site, which is often a more rapid method of decontaminating the area.

Benefits of ex-situ bioremediation techniques:

Cost efficient

Low cost

Can be done on site

Limitations of ex-situ bioremediation techniques:

Space requirements

Extended treatment time

Need to control abiotic loss

Mass transfer problem

Bioavailability limitation.

Factors to consider for ex-situ bioremediation techniques:

Biodegradative abilities of indigenous microorganisms

Presence of metals and other inorganics

Environmental Parameters

Biodegradability of pollutants

Chemical Solubility

Geological Factors

Distribution of pollutants

 

Uses of bacteria in bioremediation

A selected list of genetically engineered microorganisms

 

 

GEMs Xenobiotics
Pseudomonas Putida Mono- and dichloro aromatic compounds
P. diminuta Parathion
P. oleovorans Alkane
P. cepacia 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol
Acinetobacter species 4-chlorobenzene
Alcaligenes species 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid

 

References:

A textbook of biotechnology- R. C. Dubey

Textbook of Biotechnology- U. Sathyanarayana

www.wikipedia.com

www.intechopen.com

 

About Md. Shafiul Islam

I have been working as an Assistant Professor since May 26, 2015.My research profile lies at the interface of biomaterial science, life sciences and engineering. I am particularly interested in the design of bionanocomposite materials for relevant clinical applications, e.g. in the context of fabricating and testing biocomposite materials to study the biocompatibility with human body to repair bone tissue. I joined as a lecturer at Noakahli Science and Technology University in May 26,2013. During my working as a Lecturer, I did research on waste water treatment. In connection to this, I applied nanotechnology to treat water as well as waste water. Prior to joining the Noakhali Science and Technology University , I joined as a Scientific Officer in Drug & Toxins Lab as well as Polymer Chemistry Lab at Bangladesh Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (BCSIR).Before doing scientific works, I did M.S. thesis work in the Institute of Polymer & Radiation Technology. I completed my undergraduate studies in Applied Chemistry & Chemical Engineering ( University of Dhaka, Bangladesh) and gained my M.S. in the same department, under the supervision of Professor Dr. Mohammed Mizanur Rahman (University of Dhaka, Bangladesh), where he investigated the effect of reinforcement of nano-materials into bio-polymer composite, morphology and the effect of bacteria in the bio-composite. . I achieved Dean's Award in recognition of my excellent academic and oerall performance in B.Sc. In Bangladesh,I was shortlisted for National Science & Technology (NST) Fellowship and was successful in securing funding from Ministry of Science & Technology, in collaboration with Professor Dr.Mohammed Mizanur Rahman, University of Dhaka, towards the manufacture of medical devices that are resistant to microbial colonization. I have authored 6 research papers and 1 conference paper (h-index: 2).

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